Structural signs


Pupil size

The pupil size is significant. The term ‘miosos’ refers to a small contracted pupil and generally indicates extreme guardedness and an inward directed nature. Pupil contraction can sometimes but not always suggest hyper active digestive function.

The term ‘mydriasis’ refers to an expanded pupil and generally indicates an open disposition and an outward directed nature. This picture is often seen in children. However when the pupil is constantly expanded it can also indicate extreme exhaustion as the pupil expands when the adrenal glands are hyper-functional.  The term ‘hippus’ refers to a pupil which is constantly fluctuating and generally indicates extreme sensitivity and stress.

IPB – Inner Pupillary Border

(The edge around the pupil)

The ‘inner pupillary border’ refers to the place where the iris edge meets the pupil. It is immediately connected to the ‘inner pupillary ruff ’. The inner pupillary ruff is the only place in the human body where the very stuff of the central nervous system can be seen. This ‘ruff ’ is an extension of the optic nerve. The normal colour of the ‘ruff ’ is orange. Variations of this attest to disturbance of the central nervous system.

We observe that where the inner pupillary ruff is thickened it may be indicative of increased activity of the central nervous system. This can apply to all or part of the ruff. ‘Hypertrophy’ means thinning of all or part of the ruff. ‘Atrophy’ means absence of all or part of the ruff. Both of these displays indicate disturbance of the central nervous system. Observe for sector of the iris connected to the area of interruption or change in the overall structure of the ruff.

Pupil Tonus

Pupil tonus’ refers to the shape of the pupil and its circularity or lack of same. Areas which are flattened imply a disturbance of nerve supply to the organs represented in the corresponding sector of the iris.

Stomach Ring (Nutritive Zone)

The nutritive zone refers to the area between the inner pupillary border and the ‘collarette’.  Markings in this area are indicative if the health of the digestive system especially the stomach and small intestines.  A transparent nutritive zone or one where the sphincter muscle of the eye is visible indicates poor dynamics of absorption.  A pigmented nutritive zone or one where the entire area is overlaid indicates dyscrasia and toxic digestive disturbance.

Collarette Signs

(Iriswreath; ANW Autonmic Nerve Wreath

The collarette is defined by an obvious collar like marking around the pupil approximately one third of the way into the ciliary zone. This marking also known as the autonomic nerve wreath or ANW indicates the functional integrity of the small and large intestines. The displays of this area are many and varied and will be dealt with in a separate lecture.  Generally speaking areas of contraction or extension in this marking refer to a potential disturbance of the organs in that sector of the iris, with special reference to the effect of intestinal absorption and elimination on that organ.


Lacunae are openings in the fibrous structure of the iris. They show the body’s attempt to open and allow light in. They are usually inherited markings but we believe they can also be acquired. In general they attest to a weak nerve supply to the organs in the corresponding reaction field. They imply openness, delicacy of tissue structure and lack of vital force. Always remember that lacunae, like all other iridology markings, are potentialities for health issues and not the issues themselves.

Closed Lacuna

This structural marking is believed to be inherited and refers to a weakness of the nerve supply to the corresponding organ.

Open Lacuna

This structural marking is considered to be more serious than a closed lacuna. Special attention should be paid to the underlying organ to limit toxic encumbrance and encourage its health through appropriate lifestyle and dietary consideration.

Leaf Lacuna

Specific structural lesions referring to potential weakness of the endocrine organs.

Giant Lacuna

The giant lacuna usually extends from the collarette to the outer ciliary zone and often indicates pancreas insufficiency.

Ladder and Step Lacuna

This lacuna marking amplifies the degree of insufficient nerve supply and possible tissue changes of the corresponding organ.

Torpedo and Lancet Lacuna

Torpedo lacunae are long and narrow. If they cross the collarette this emphasises the severity of implication for potential tissue change and tumour growth.

Asparagus Lacuna

Rare structural marking usually seen in the glandular system or in the head area. While this marking is considered in most Iridology traditions to be quite serious, it is important to note that lacunae and iris markings in general refer merely to potentialities which display symptoms only under particular conditions that stress the organism. In other words, a person with an asparagus lacuna in the head area, a healthy lifestyle and little or no presenting symptoms will probably never experience the negative potentiality.


Chambering of the fibres in the upper stroma layer gives rise to this marking which is quite distinct from a lacuna. They indicate a disturbance of oxygenation (and all that that implies) in the corresponding area.


Crypts are deeper than lacuna, they usually occur in the nutritive and intestinal zones. They often indicate ulcers in this area.

Neuronal Net

This lacuna is found only in the heart and lung reaction fields. It appears like a net shaped fibrous structure. It is indicative of potential pathology with a psychological aspect implied. There may be a family history of depression.

Contraction Furrows

Contraction furrows are the single most important evidence of stress. They are concentric rings and attention should be paid to where they break as the underlying area is a focus for therapy.

Radial Furrows

Radii solaris majoris are radial markings appearing like creases beginning near the pupil and transversing the collarette out into the ciliary zone.

Radii solaris minoris are radial markings appearing like creases beginning at the collarette and radiating out into the ciliary zone. Both markings are indicative of stress with an underlying digestive system involvement.

Trabecular and Vascular signs

Inflammation: Trabecular signs sometimes appear as a transverse fibre or ‘transversal’ running in the opposite direction to the general stroma flow. If they are white and raised in appearance it is a sign for inflammation of the underlying organ.

Vascularisation: Meaning is the same as for inflamed transversal, but in this case the condition is more acute as the tissue is split revealing the blood in the fibre giving it a pinkish tinge. This indicates a more acute pathology.

Perifocal signs

This term refers to any sign which amplifies the meaning of a lacuna or other structural marking. They may take the form of raised fibres around a marking or a specific pigmentation. They are indicative of the chronicity of the pathological process.

Flocculations (Tophi)

These are concentrations of raised whitened tissue in cotton wool ball like aggregations. They usually are speckled around the iris outer edge (as in the hydrogenoid constitution). They are indicative of lymph congestion.

Scurf rim

A scurf rim takes the appearance of a darkened ring around the iris edge. It corresponds to the skin reaction field and is indicative of potential poor peripheral circulation and poor skin elimination.

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Tags: border, collarette, inner, lacunae, pigments, pupil, pupillary, ring, size, stomach, More…tons

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